Use of mechanical ventilator have significantly improved the treatment process of patient suffering from respiratory disease
The mechanical ventilator is an artificial respiratory system that supplies oxygenation and ventilation to a patient. The device has a closed-loop control system, which allows the ventilation controller to automatically regulate its outputs. The ventilator sends out data about the patient's blood gas values and respiratory mechanics to an input data analyzer. The ventilator then regulates the amount of air being delivered to the patient to minimize respiratory work. The ventilator also measures the patient's heart rate, tidal volume, and inspiratory and expiratory times.
The main purpose of a mechanical ventilator is to allow the patient to recover from a respiratory condition by taking deep breaths and supporting their respiratory system. The ventilation is usually delivered through a respiratory circuit. There are three types of respiratory circuits. They are sometimes interchangeable. One type delivers positive pressure to the patient's airway, while the other two deliver negative pressure. A pulmonary function test is done to determine the correct respiratory circuit.
The Global Mechanical Ventilators Market is estimated to account for US$ 4,248.7 Mn in terms of value by the end of 2027.
The initial mode of mechanical ventilation is known as assist-control. As the name suggests, this mode ensures a minimum respiratory rate regardless of spontaneous breathing. The pressure-volume curve provides a relationship between the volume and the pressure, so any given volume corresponds to a specific amount of pressure. The resultant airway pressure is not fixed but varies depending on the resistance, elastance, and flow rate of the respiratory system.
Although mechanical ventilators are primarily used in hospitals and emergency situations, they can also be used at home to provide supplemental oxygen for long-term respiratory illnesses. However, home care caregivers must have adequate resources to support their patients while on a mechanical ventilator. Those in need of mechanical ventilation should also be aware that this treatment can increase the risk of developing pneumonia and damaging the vocal cords. So, use of mechanical ventilator is very important for respiratory related disease.
Intentional leaks can interfere with the ventilator's pressurization. Intentional mask leaks may prevent VT from being achieved, but pressure ventilatory support compensates for these effects. Most ventilators now include a tidal volume guaranteed (TVG) mode, labelled as "dual mode ventilation." To achieve VTG, technician need to increase the flow and the pressure applied to the airway.
PEEP (positive airway pressure) is another mode of therapy that can be used with mechanical ventilators. Increasing intrathoracic pressure increases the end-expired lung volume. The increased airspace at the end of expiration prevents atelectasis. Higher levels of PEEP may improve oxygenation in some pulmonary disorders and in some cases limit cardiogenic pulmonary edema. It also limits lung injury caused by high FIO2.
The intrinsic PEEP can be measured in a passive patient with the use of an end-expiratory hold maneuver. The pressure at the end of expiration reflects the alveolar pressure. However, it is important to note that neuromuscular blockade is not advisable to be used for intrinsic PEEP measurement. Expiratory flow tracing is another method for determining intrinsic PEEP. The latter is often more reliable than the former.